Overtraining Syndrome

Working out is a wonderful thing. Regular and intense exercise keeps you at a healthy body weight, keeps your muscles toned, your bones dense, helps you to sleep better, feel happier more regularly, and joining group fitness programs can be a fantastic way to make long-lasting friendships. The benefits are quite extensive. But as with anything, you want a moderate amount of exercise in your life. Meaning not too much. But how do you establish how much exercise is too much? What are the results of exercising too much, and is it really such a bad thing?

Yes and no. Exercising too much is probably not really a thing for most people. This is because while it is amazing and yields a lot of benefits and humans need exercise/physical stimulation/movement in order to live well, exercise is also stressful and there is only so much most people are willing to put up with before saying enough and taking a break. Fatigue builds up and continuously nudges you to slow down and stop. So an individual training session is unlikely to have much of a detrimental value. If it is your first workout in a long while, pushing yourself may leave you quite sore and sleepy for a few days, but you heal and get stronger. No lasting damage. Just lasting awesomeness if you continue to move regularly.

Now the point of exercising, of going to the gym, is to get better at doing things. Lifting weights, running, jumping, gymnastics...using your body. In other words, you should be going to the gym to make adaptations. Changes in the capabilities of your body and mind. This means breaking your body down in some way so that it has to build itself back up stronger than before. Exercise itself does not make you stronger; RECOVERING from exercise makes you stronger. This is a vital point to understand. It is in-between the workouts, especially during sleep, that you adapt and develop. And it is when this recovery does not happen appropriately that problems will occur.

Overtraining syndrome is a condition used often within the realm of athletics. It describes a set of symptoms associated with a sustained fight-or-flight response. These symptoms include chronic indigestion, irritability, inability to sleep and focus, lack of healing/recovery from workouts and also any injuries, and a chronically raised heart rate. Amongst many other things. When discussing this condition, it is important to keep in mind the fact that human beings are ever-adapting creatures, constantly adjusting to stimuli in the environment, and creating lasting changes to any lasting stimuli.

When we workout, we go through (or at least really should go through) a warmup. A warmups purpose is to steadily increase your respiration, perspiration and body heat, and get the neuromuscular system (the part of your body in control of how your brain interacts with your muscles/movement) engaged to better allow you to move in whatever way it needs to in order to perform the exercises more efficiently.  For example, if your workout is going to be 10 reps of 400-meter sprints with a 90-second rest between each sprint, you may start off the session with jogging, lunging, stomping, squatting and other movements to exaggerate the ranges of movement used when sprinting. You progressively go through these movements with more and more intensity over the course of about 15-30 minutes or so. By the time you are ready to begin the sprints, you should be sweaty and breathing hard. If you are not hot and breathing hard at this point, you have not warmed up. Do more.

Physiologically speaking, what you did while going through that warmup was engaging your sympathetic nervous system. This is the part of your nervous system that controls making you more stressed out. So increasing blood pressure and heart rate, giving you tunnel vision, quickened breath, amongst many other things. This is opposed to the parasympathetic nervous system, which is the exact opposite, making you more relaxed. So when you workout, you engage the sympathetic nervous system while disengaging the parasympathetic. Sympathetic is stress. Parasympathetic is relaxation.

Going back to the human body always adapting to stimuli, this includes internal nervous system functions. This is otherwise known as creating habits. If you practice running frequently enough, you become better at running. If you practice playing the guitar frequently enough, you will get better at playing the guitar. Same applies to driving, archery, math, welding...any practice. Your body will make changes so that certain details of the practice can be performed on auto-pilot so you do not have to be constantly and consciously focusing on every little detail. Imagine how stressful driving was the very first time you got behind the wheel. With practice you became accustomed to steering, stepping on the pedals, controlling AC and temperature, radio and other functions. And instead of having to focus on each individual task, you could start to do things without much thought, becoming, hopefully, more efficient at driving. Instead of looking at the AC controls to change them, you can alter them as you want without looking. You have adapted to driving and made a habit of the skills needed to do so.

The sympathetic nervous system is not something that should persist for long. Not being able to digest, or sleep, or heal will kill you. The arousal developed from warming up should only last as long as the workout. Once the workout is completed, the parasympathetic nervous system needs to be engaged so that you can relax. However, if you never do relax, then the sympathetic nervous system can persist. Imagine an endurance athlete. A marathon runner. Someone who regularly goes for runs that last for hours at a time, and therefore maintaining a sympathetic nervous system for an extended period of time. Not just 10-30 minutes at a time. These individuals will, over time, have much more practice making an engaged sympathetic nervous system a habitual occurrence. Meaning that the likelihood of the sympathetic nervous system persisting, never turning off, becomes more and more likely as the athlete continues this form of training. Not suggesting this type of training is bad at all, but that individual or any individual who is frequently subjected to a lot of stress will need to balance out the stress with conscious relaxation. This needs to begin the moment the workout is completed. This is what the cooldown is. Disengaging the sympathetic nervous system and engaging the parasympathetic nervous system.

A lot of athletes will often do their workout and then just simply carry on with their everyday life or job right after. No cooldown. Or at least no real cooldown. Sorry everyone, but spending 2 minutes on static stretching doesn't absolutely nothing of value. There is no disengaging the sympathetic nervous system intentionally. With an individual occurrence, things may not be so bad. Their heart rate may stay up for a while, but it is unlikely that any serious problems will arise, such as an inability to sleep or to eat without puking or pain. Eventually, the parasympathetic nervous system will engage on its own. But if this becomes a habitual occurrence for the athlete, skipping the cooldown and not performing any actions to intentionally relax their body, the sympathetic nervous system can become permanent. This is when they stop sleeping (deeply) even though they feel tired all the time, they can become perpetually sore as their body never recovers, and eating can be uncomfortable as the digestive tract will not work very well. It will also compromise their immune system, making it significantly easier to get and stay sick. This is when we say an individual has Overtraining Syndrome. And it can last anywhere from days to years. It depends on how much that person overworks their body.

The real problem here is not working out too hard or too often. The problem that creates this Overtraining Syndrome is the lack of relaxation incorporated between the workouts. Again, it is important to always remember that exercise does not make you stronger. Exercise breaks you down so that you can be built back up stronger than before. But that building up only happens after the exercise. In many cases, less exercise can really mean more results. If you can’t sleep or absorb nutrients, you won’t recover. And so you won’t get better at whatever it is you are going to the gym to do. So in a way, the exercise becomes futile at this point. A waste of time. Personally, I consider the warmup and cooldown to be the most important parts of the workout time. The workout itself is probably the more exciting bit, but a great warmup can significantly boost your performance in the workout, and a great cooldown can drastically enhance how well you recover from and get stronger from the workout.

Signs/Symptoms of Overtraining:

  • Chronic indigestion

  • Chronically sick

  • Trouble sleeping or even complete inability to sleep

  • Constantly tired between workouts

  • Chronically sore

  • Heart rate is chronically higher than normal

(This is all considering the individual is exercising a lot. However, other activities can create this. Essentially any activity that creates stress is relevant here. Being a drummer, having a desk job that always makes you want to pull your hair out.. you can use your imagination a bit.)

Some tips for having a better cooldown, and therefore mitigating against developing any of the symptoms of Overtraining Syndrome include the following:

  • Breathe deeply. Exercise takes your breath away. Focus on reclaiming your breathe ASAP to cool everything down in about the fastest, most efficient way possible.

  • Drink plenty of water before, during and after the workout. That includes throughout the day, every day too.

  • Practice a lot of stretching/mobilizing/deep tissue work after the workout. Especially in your upper back (Yoga Tune Up® balls are the best thing to use here) and also in your abdomen (the Coregeous ball is the best thing to use here). Getting a professional massage is also great.

  • Taking a cold shower or taking a full body dip in a tub full of ice water can help flush out inflammatory factors quickly. Doesn’t have to be a long exposure; just 30 seconds can be beneficial. Also, once you are accustomed to it, the icy cold water feels amazing!

  • Getting into a sauna or sweat lodge can help your body to relax as well. As with cold exposure, it doesn't have to be for a long time. Just a few minutes can begin to create change in your body.

  • Have a nutritious diet. Consuming enough fats, proteins, carbs, vitamins and minerals help your body to recover without having to eat itself. Speaking of carbs, insulin counteracts cortisol, one of your main stress hormones. Everything in moderation, but consuming some sugar can really help people to relax from a stressful event. This is why a person might be given a sugary drink after a stressful encounter like a fight. It’s easier to swallow a fluid than a solid and the sugar will help to counter the cortisol dump.

  • Do some deep tissue work right before going to sleep. It will help you get into a deeper parasympathetic response and can help you sleep deeper.

  • Spend a dedicated minimum of 30 minutes cooling down after a workout. If you don’t ever have the time after your workout, consider shortening the workout. Recovery is the priority. Recovery is when you get stronger. You exercise to get stronger in some way. So focus on your recovery to make use of the exercise.

Fixing health problems on the largest scale possible.

Wanna know how we can fix a ton of health care problems within an entire country in as little as within the next decade? Teach your children to squat. And teach them by doing it yourself, and doing it frequently, all throughout the day.


Most of the problems you are ever likely to have will be brought on by your own self. Whether it's from your own ego, ignorance, or whatever, a lot of the issues we face are our own fault. In my field, this directly refers to musculo-skeletal dysfunction. If you tear your ACL or meniscus, there is a 98% chance that it was 100% preventable. Unless it tore because somebody fell on the side of your knee and broke your leg, or unless you developed a disease which caused it (not sure that exists, but who knows, I am not a pathologist), then that ACL/meniscus tear happened because of the way you were moving. Most likely because your knees collapsed to the inside every single time you squatted, sat down/stood up/sat on the toilet/got in and out of your vehicle. And after 10 million repetitions of that from the age of 3, something had to give. That is most likely why your ACL tore. If you have hammertoes/bunions, it IS possible that you were born with some kind of congenital disorder that warped your skeleton. I believe that can be possible. But unless that is the case, your warped feet happened because you spent YEARS walking around ALL THE TIME in shoes that were way too small and which crushed your toes together all day, every day.

 Low back pain is absolutely rampant. In America, you can basically say that if you are a human being, you are going to have chronic low back pain. Not just an episode here and there. But CHRONIC, incessant, unrelenting back pain. And it will suck. Life, joy, being able to help yourself and others, being able to navigate your own life, to be independent...yeah those things start to suck. Being in pain sucks. Especially when you have no idea why its there, and dont have any reliable way of dealing with it. It just plain sucks.

So here is a question: If back pain is so incredibly common, and doctors receive soooo many patients who complain about back pain, why does there seem to be so little legitimate help? It seems like most of the help is exercise that may or may not help, very basic stretching that may or may not help, and pain pills that also may or may not help. Or some of the advice may be to stop exercising altogether. Just stop moving. Stop being a human being. But just like those other examples, the vast majority of back pain cases are 100% preventable. It didn't just happen out of the blue. It didn't just happen because you just had your 50th birthday. It happened either because you developed a disease which caused you to display pain in that region (low back aches are common with influenza, for example), or because your got hit or you fell and you broke your back, OR it happened because you sat so flipping much that your tissues and so many other factors got incredibly tight and repeatedly tugged on your spine/central nervous system millions and millions of times for years. Eventually your body had to start screaming at you to get your attention. Simply because you were not taught how to really listen to your body, and likely spent much of your youth being taught how to ignore yourself. How to ignore what you're feeling. How to ignore everything that comes out of you, on all levels. 

The United States of America contains something like 3% of the worlds population, and it consumes about 80% of the worlds opiate supply. You can find the actual numbers on google. Do you know how these pain pills work? Most of the time, they work to slow down and inhibit the nervous system from working. This is why ibuprofen comes with a warning about operating machinery and driving after consumption...it makes some people drowsy. Essentially, these pain pills just numb your body. They make you detached from your own body. Just like if a part of your body becomes really numb from something cold, or if a body part falls asleep, you become unable to really communicate with that body part. So also essentially, pain pills help you ignore the problem. When has ignoring a problem ever legitimately fixed said problem? Basically never. Even if you have convinced yourself that the problem was fixed, it probably really wasn't. If I get a huge cut on my arm, get injected with morphine so I cannot feel anything anymore, and then just let the cut be...things are probably going to get bad pretty soon. Especially if I continue moving in such a way as to open the wound each and every time i move my arm. Which is going to be easy to do if I cannot feel anything around it. 

If I go walk around in the snow wearing nothing but shorts, I have two options: I can either focus and maintain a stable body temperature and legitimately remain warm against the cold, or I can ignore the cold. If I just simply ignore the cold, tough it out, I'm going to die. Because I ignored the cold for an extended time and got frostbite and then passed out. Not a great way to go. And unfortunately, this happens to a lot of people. In my own home state of Alabama, we get about one snow day a year. Sometimes people get stranded on the interstate because of wrecks and such. And they get tired of waiting, and get out to walk home. But they don't have the clothes or food to remain out there long. Because they are not acclimated to the cold. Again, it rarely snows down here. And people from here have died from exposure doing that. 

Yet there are some people out there who can thrive out in the cold. Wim Hof for example teaches people in just a few days to maintain a high body temperature in freezing temperatures. You can look Wim Hof up on Youtube. It is fascinating watching what he cant do, and how he can train people up to climb a snowy mountain, after something like 3 days of training, wearing nothing but shorts and climbing shoes. What is the difference in these sets of people? Simply put, education and training. 

Why do you speak English? Or whatever language you speak. Because it's what you were taught. And if you grew up in England, you would speak with one of the bajillion British accents you can find in that country, depending on which city you grew up in. If you grew up in France, you would speak French. If you grew up in Saudi Arabia, you would be a Muslim. If you grew up in South Korea, you would be eating Kimchi (a kind of seasoned, fermented cabbage. Similar to sauerkraut) and would probably not mind it at all because as far as I have learned about it, South Koreans eat a ton of kimchi. Why? Because of the culture. Because of the environment. Humans tend to largely be who they are because of the people around them. Humans are social animals. We create tribes and share ideas and things. It's what we do.

So if kids are raised in a culture that speaks English, they will grow up speaking English. So what might happen to kids if they grew up seeing all the adults and other kids squatting ALL THE TIME?

Kids already start squatting as soon as they can walk. And I do NOT mean a half-squat. This is not taking your thighs to parallel with the ground. That is HALF range of motion. I'm talking about the squatting you see children utilizing when they play or rest. A full, butt to ankles squat.  It is a very natural thing. It expresses decent ankle range of motion, full knee and hip flexion, and a decent amount of ankle and hip external rotation. And we know for an absolute and irrefutable fact that lack of ability to squat well for decades can directly lead to a massive amount of physical dysfunction. In other words, squatting regularly is incredibly healthy for your lower body. Check my earlier blogs for more info on all that. In fact, a lot of that back pain I mentioned at the start of all this, along with foot, ankle, shin, calf, knee, thigh, and hip pain, may be caused by a lack of ability to squat well. Squatting maintains full range of motion. If you lack full range of motion somewhere, that means there is excess tension in someway, somewhere. That excess tension is going to make things bad if it is ignored. The real big problem here is that it may literally take 30 years before it shows up as a significant injury. Because humans are awesome and resilient. And also because we are often trained to ignore our problems, to ignore our pain. To man up, grow up and to be out of touch with how we feel on the inside. Often to become overly concerned with the things outside of us which we have absolutely no control over. 

So if we are thinking along the lines that position is power, and that we need to maintain full range of motion in our joints in order to keep our muscles and joints strong and healthy and pain free, then we have a pretty easy way of helping to prevent back pain from occurring in the future: start squatting around the kids. Seriously. Do it. Learn how to do a freakin squat yourself, start doing it all the time to get acclimated to it, and start making a habit of squatting whenever there are kids around. Need help getting better at squatting? Check out my videos on the topic: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCkns9B1fNU1E6VtEPNfTtKw/videos?view_as=subscriber

Yes, ACL and menicus tears and flat feet and shin splints and bunions and hammertoes and labrum tears and IT band syndrome/Runners knee and about everything else are pretty common in adults. And a lot of these problems developed because you were not educated well when it came to footwear and maintaining your own body. This idea of learning HOW to move well isnt something that is very mainstream yet. But we are working on making it so. Hopefully teaching people how to increase their mobility and correct their movement when it comes to walking, running, squatting, deadlifting etc. will soon be a common thing in primary/elementary schools. 

I think this is incredibly important. Create a culture where we squat all the time. Same as people do in Thailand and Japan, where people will often wait in line in a squat. I had a Japanese teacher in college, and she would seriously sit in a squat if we had to wait on a previous class to end and evacuate that classroom. Full butt to ankles squat. Ass to grass. And she squatted and stood up very easily. She never struggled to move your own bodyweight around. Because she was taught to do so and grew up doing it. And I will wager that cultures which value such things as USING THEIR OWN BODIES with full ranges of motion have drastically less chronic pain problems. 

The kids are already starting off with limber bodies. And we desperately need to stop taking that away from them. Create an environment in which they maintain their mobility. But that can only happen if the adults take charge of themselves and actually squat too. You dont have to enjoy it. It might be painful for you now. Practice it and it will get better after you demand your body be able to do it. Just like exercising for the first time in a while. You will be sore and weak for a while. You HAVE to get over this stage. Consistency is the name of the game. Consistency is how you create habits. And with habits, you wont have to think about doing it. Squat all the time, and soon you will do it without thinking just because that's what you always do. No thought anymore. If the kids are chronically exposed to that, they will become adults who chronically do it. This is important.

This is my challenge to you all.

Make a difference in the lives of the people around you. I believe it really is that simple. I firmly believe we can make a MASSIVE dent in how much money people are spending on worthless drugs that only make their problems worse long term. I believe we can make a MASSIVE dent in the amount of people going to the hospital for problems that are 100% preventable and were directly caused by excess tension in their body because they lost their range of motion. Get to squatting, and get to fixing up your problems that inhibit your squatting. Teach the kids that sitting in a chair long term is dangerous and creates pain and weakness. Heck, teach them to sit in a squat in their chair. I did this in college. I got weird looks for all of about 5 minutes. Nobody followed my example because I was only one, but my teachers were totally cool with it. Squatting in public aint weird. It's called being a human. 

Coming up, we'll go over some strategies for incorporating squatting and other full range positions (our archetypes) in your daily life. Practical strategies that are easy to use right away so blogs like this can be more useful for you.


How to pick a personal trainer or physical therapist

Picking either kind of PT is a serious decision that bears consideration of several factors. Not all PT’s are created equal by any means. They all vary considerably by experience, education, and desire for having their job. Many trainers out there do that job because they love helping people live healthier lives, some do it because they enjoy getting paid to lead a workout themselves, and others may want the job because it’s easy to write up workout programs and give them to a client to do while they spend the entire hour on their phone. For physical therapists, it’s not necessarily much different. Many of the people I knew in college who were pursuing a career in physical therapy first and foremost wanted the job because it can quickly pay 6 figures a year. Several others wanted the job because they love sports, however that makes sense in their own head. And this is not to suggest that you should not want a job for money. Getting paid is always a reason for having a job. But when the entire focus is on getting paid, this can quickly, and perhaps often, lead to less-than-optimal care for the patients/clients. And sooooo many people report that their physical therapist just simply put some massage cream onto their leg and left them to go tend to another client while their leg dried, or the therapist put them to work walking on a treadmill while the therapist went to work with someone else. Seriously, some clients have paid for a physical therapist to tell them to walk on the treadmill for 20 minutes while the PT tended someone else. It happens.


A PT, whichever one, is supposed to be a movement professional. Meaning that they help you to clean up your movement to help you live a healthier life. For personal trainers, they should be teaching you how to challenge your ability to move with good posture. Nothing they do should ever set you up for injury or chronic dysfunction. And for physical therapists, they should be helping you to improve your movement after you have already developed some sort of dysfunction, such as after surgery or an injury. Preferably, the personal trainer should be able to fix small-scale movement dysfunction in real time in order to prevent things from getting worse. And a physical therapist should be reserved for the bigger things that a personal trainer could not be reasonably expected to help with.


For example, if a client has a problem with their knees always buckling in when they squat, the personal trainer should correct that bad position, and be able to clean up mobility issues around their hips and knees that may have developed from that bad position. But, if that individual had been using the knees-in position for many years and was already destroying their meniscus and/or ACL’s, they they should probably seek a physical therapist who should be able to provide a higher level of care.


Lack of finding a quality PT however can lead to such an issue continuing. Let us say that you began suffering from knee pain, and decided you need either a personal trainer or a physical therapist. If the trainer just simply puts you through a workout program to help strengthen your legs but does not address your position and capacity for full range positions, then they are worthless. If you go to a therapist and all they do is help alleviate your knee pain without addressing how you move and why the pain may have developed in the first place, and therefore teach you how to manage and prevent the issue on your own, then that is also worthless. Always remember that it is YOU, the client, who chooses the PT. You never have to settle for whoever you first work with. And don’t assume that just because they have a piece of paper declaring they passed a test, that they necessarily are worth it for you and your health.


Here is a list of GUIDELINES to help you choose a PT. Either interview them a little bit or just simply pay attention to how they work with you. If any red flags go off in your head, get another PT. You always have that freedom and responsibility. This list is not necessarily set in stone. Always be sure to ask questions and learn why a PT may have you do whatever it is they do to you. They may have a legitimate reason for doing something that contradicts this list.


  1. If your personal trainer (talking one-on-one, not group fitness) only leads a workout and you just simply follow along as best you can, and they never fix your movement or mobility issues, perhaps you should run away.

  2. If your trainer only writes out workouts for you, and does not guide you through the movements, run away.

  3. If your personal trainer does not have any focus on breathing and improving your capacity to breathe, run away.

  4. If your personal trainer or your physical therapist does not teach you about how to move, run away.

  5. If your PT does not workout, run away. And I do not mean work out with you. I mean they need to workout in their own time and be fit. They should practice what they preach. You can ask them how much they deadlift or press. If they can not respond to such a question, run away.

  6. A strain is the result of violently overstretching muscles and tendons. If your PT diagnosis a strain and has you stretch it out, you might want to run away. Stretching something that is overstretched never does anyone any good.

  7. Similar to #6, if you have super tight muscles and maybe nearby joint pain, and your PT has your strengthen those muscles, maybe you should run away. Weight training makes your tissues tighter.

  8. Manners. If they treat you like crap, are bossy, and obviously don’t care really care for your well-being in any way, run away.

  9. Undivided attention. If they are constantly on their phone or focusing constantly on something else that is not you, the client, run away and find someone else.

  10. Professional attitude. Don’t put up with anyone being overbearing, creepy or flirtatious with you in the workplace. If they feel creepy, run away.

Archetypes: The models to understand how much flexibility you need

Being flexible is useful. Being flexible allows you to move as independently as possible, and to have more access to strength and speed and endurance.  It is also useful to have tools and strategies to enhance your flexibility as much as possible. However, flexibility alone does NOT matter. It does NOT matter if you can touch your toes. Coaches have always said their athletes need to stretch, but to what end? And what reference point to have to compare against? This is where the movement and mobility archetypes come into play. An archetype is simply a model or example to imitate. And there are several simple position that we use to say "This is full range of motion for such and such joint, and this is how far you need to be able to reach." Touching your toes does not matter. Yes, you should be able to do it, but really, what does matter is if you can perform work without putting yourself at risk of harm. Can you reach down to the ground to either pick something up or put something down. This is an example of the deadlift archetype.

All of these archetypes, with the exception of one, which we will talk about in a later blog (the abdominal vacuum) all display one arrangement of hip or shoulder flexion or extension, and either internal or external rotation in the hips or shoulders.
These models and their standards must always express full range of motion in their relevant joints, a neutral spine, creating torque in the correct direction, and it must transfer across to other skills and movements. These qualities are what make the following positions models to imitate for both daily life and athleticism.

Archetype #1: THE SQUAT:

The squat is a display of hip flexion and external rotation. Additionally, you also need full knee flexion, along with a decent amount of ankle flexion.
The squat is the gold standard for having general range of motion. Basically, if you cannot squat butt to ankles, you know you need help and that you can increase your defenses  against chronic pain even further.  The squat is a fundamental shape that all human beings start off being able to do perfectly, but, for many, stop being able to do simply because they never do it anymore. And rarely are you ever good at something you never practice. Your lack of ability to squat is never because of how old you are. It is because you never practice it. 

Now, the squat is a movement that demands a few rules be followed in sequence i order to do optimize your health, sustainability, and power as you move through it.

1. Brace yourself. Squeeze your butt, squeeze your belly. Keep your belly tight while you relax your butt.
2. Screw your feet into the ground externally. This will create external rotation in your hips and engage your glutes for you. So without moving your feet, keep your feet parallel, and screw them into the ground. This will also cause you to display having your knees out.
3. Initiate the movement of the squat by first taking your hips back. Not taking your knees forward. 
4. The hips will move back as they go down, so let your torso lean forward to counter balance. Leaning forward is not illegal, especially for a basic body squat. 
5. Feet remain straight through the entire movement, and knees always remain shoved out to stabilize the hips through the entire movement, up and down. How hard you shove your knees out depends on how much weight you are moving up and down.
6. Maintain a neutral spine from the top to the bottom position. But understand that if you go all the way down to your ankles, your hips will naturally tuck in as you get into a rest position. Dont go that far down if you are lifting weights.
7. Follow the same rules in reverse for standing up out of the squat.

Archetype #2: THE LUNGE


The lunge is an expression of hip extension and internal rotation. And the couch stretch, seen above, is the ultimate expression of hip extension.

Lunging simply means one leg is trailing back behind the body. The classic lunge exercise is just an exaggeration of walking. Every time you take a step your back leg is lunging. In order to create stability in the hip while going through extension, you need to generate internal rotation. Think about how a boxer moves his back leg while he punches off of his back hip. They will always turn their back leg inward because that allows for maximum power output. Creating a full lunge position, however, is something we rarely do in our day-to-day life. There just simply aren't really any demands, anywhere, for creating so much hip extension. The gym is about the only place you are likely to see this. And because it is so rarely seen in daily life, even for fit and mobile people, hip extension is often missing. This is something that needs to specifically be trained, and to be trained often. The couch stretch is the opposite of sitting, and is important for being able to squat optimally.

An important note about getting into the couch stretch is that you need to be able to squeeze your glutes when you are fully extended. If you try to compensate and bend your lower back to reach your torso up , you will be in a bad position. Always be able to squeeze your butt.

Archetype #3: THE DEADLIFT


The deadlift is a display of hip flexion and external rotation.
The difference between a deadlift and a squat however is that during a squat, your hips move a little bit back and all the way down. During a deadlift, your hips move a little bit down, and all the way back. 

Also known as a hip-hinge, deadlifting is how you position yourself to either pick something up or to put something down, although a squat can also be used to perform the same action. One of the most important factors of the deadlift position is maintaining a neutral lower back. Your glutes and hamstrings need to extend while you move through this position, however, if these tissues are stiff, they will pull on your lower back and pull your QL's (quadratus lumborum muscles, which help to hold your lumbar spine down to your hips) up and out. This is what those humps are in the lower back when an individual bends there. 

Bonus archeytpe: THE PISTOL

The pistol is a demonstration of full ankle range of motion. There isn't really anything out there that demands more ankle flexibility. All it is is a one-legged squat. Even if you can perform a squat with flat feet, that doesn't mean you can perform a one-legged squat, which demands a little bit more ankle flexion. This position I consider necessary if you want to run. Having more than enough ankle flexibility is important for allowing your achilles tendon to safely extend through every step under that stress. I consider this a bonus archetype only because it is really just an extension of the squat, not an altogether different position.

Archetype #4: THE OVERHEAD


The overhead position displays Shoulder flexion and external rotation. 

If your shoulders are tight, what will commonly happen when your raise your arms up is that they will pull on your chest because that's the only place they can find slack. This automatically places your spine into overextension, and now you are ignoring the first rule of movement. Having tight shoulders makes it difficult to do things such as pressing weights overhead, painting high up on a wall, or just taking off a shirt. Not only does it take less range of motion to set your spine into a bad position, but having tight shoulders also means your arms, shoulders, chest, and neck will be significantly weaker and at greater risk for chronic pain and injury.

The standards for this position include:

  • The ribcage does not move. At all.
  • Elbows remain locked out.
  • The arms should basically be straight up and down relative to your head.

Archetype #5: THE FRONT RACK


The front rack position displays Shoulder flexion and external rotation. What sets it apart from the overhead position is that it also includes full elbow flexion, and wrist extension if you are holding something.

You need enough range of motion to be able to pull the back of your right knuckles to touch the top of your right shoulder. This is the position you use when you carry weights/loads on the front of your shoulders. Think about when you are getting ready to press weight overhead, holding a baby at eye level, or holding a bag over your shoulder. These are all examples of the front rack position. This is typically just a transition position and you usually do not just hang out here for any length of time. 

Archetype #7: THE HANG


Shoulder extension and internal rotation. This is the lunge of the upper body.

The hang position is one that is rarely used, even in the gym. Dips are about the fullest expression that you are likely to see, though passing through a clean or snatch or sumo deadlift high pull will have you briefly pass through shoulder extension. This is a large component with understanding having an open chest and relaxed shoulders. Just like the lunge position is the opposite of sitting, the hang position is the opposite of slouching, and needs to be regularly exaggerated to maintain. You want to be able to bring your shoulders to about 90 degrees behind you, so that your upper arms are parallel to the floor.

Bonus archetype: THE PRESS


Full wrist range of motion. 

The press position is like the pistol of the upper body. Although there is also the planche, which is just like a plank, except only your hands are touching the ground, the press displays full wrist range of motion, and is a skill that transfers into pushups, opening doors, and also pulling.

Tight, painful wrists are one of the biggest, most common complaints I hear in regards to chronic pain. And for good reason. The amount of stress we place on our hands throughout our entire life from the day we are born is staggering. All this accumulated stress can lead to massive amounts of arthritis, and pain throughout the entire arm and even neck. Pushups are often difficult for people not because their arms are weak, but because their wrists are so tight and painful. And this stiffness can prevent you from creating external rotation in the shoulders, and therefore stability. My opinion is that you should be able to pull each hand back to 90 degrees using only your forearm extensors. If you cannot do this, that is an indicator that your hands, wrists, forearms and shoulders are super tight, and that pushups will be needlessly painful. This will spread out to activities such as knitting, writing, typing, archery, and eating.

Tools of the trade

Now that we have gone over some different factors that contribute to our range of motion (http://www.ehmobility.com/blog/mobility-what-is-it-and-what-inhibits-it), let us go over the different tools that we can use to clean up poor mobility.

#1. The bracing sequence
I cannot stress this enough. The very first thing you need to do to enhance your mobility is to get your spine in a braced and neutral position. Do this by going through your bracing sequence: Squeeze your butt. Squeeze your belly. Keep your belly squeezed and now unsqueeze your butt. Going through this sequence establishes the strongest position for the human body. It will maximize your potential not only for flexibility, but also strength, endurance and power.

#2. Bands and banded distractions
In physiology, distraction is a term used to mean separating two joint surfaces away from each other. Not dislocating the joint, or even subluxating (a partial dislocation) it, just simply creating a little bit of space. When a joint capsule, or the muscles surrounding a given joint, become super tight, they can pull the joint surfaces closer together. Two big things happen when the joint gets closed like this: synovial fluid gets drained out, and the bones now get in the way of movement. Synovial fluid is an amazing lubricant. It is extremely slick, with the consistency similar to a raw egg white. Synovial fluid should prevent friction between the two joint surfaces, and it also acts as a medium for transporting nutrients into the cartilage. Every time you create compression in a joint, the synovial fluid should get pumped into the cartilage. Then, as the joint pressure releases, synovial fluid can fill back in. Think of this in terms of the knee while going up stairs, or of the elbows and shoulders during a bench press. But if this fluid gets squeezed out of the joint, and then that pressure remains long enough for your tissues to adapt to that length, the synovial fluid will not return until the pressure is released and normal movement begins again.

After this fluid has been squeezed out, there is no longer anything to prevent friction between the pieces of cartilage in the joint. They can now rub each other away until there is nothing left. Cartilage has very little blood flow. It gets most of its nutrition from synovial fluid. And while some kinds of cartilage do not appear to heal very well once damaged, SYNOVIAL CARTILAGE can heal given time and nutrition. 

This is how many cases of arthritis may happen. The joint simply has too much pressure around it and rubs the cartilage to inflammation.

Using a thick exercise band is an extremely cheap, and infinitely useful, way to undo tightness in a joint. Simply anchor down one end of the band to something sturdy and stable, such as a squat rack, or steel door frame. Then, anchor the band in such a way to your body so that it pulls on the joint your are trying to affect. For example, if you want to pull on your shoulder, wrap the band around your wrist, turn your palm up to the ceiling, and then back up so the band gently pulls your whole arm straight out. This is not a strength exercise. Let your arm relax as much possible. Be lazy and let the band do all the work. All you need to worry about is holding your posture so that you do not get pulled over.

#3. Yoga Tune Up balls/ foam rollers.

Foam rollers have exploded in popularity since the early 2000’s. And for good reason. Even an untrained athlete who uses a foam roller in the most rudimentary way can reap massive benefits. You do NOT need to have a physiology degree to understand simple ways of using them. Foam rollers work to accomplish a few things, including rehydrating tissues to improve stiffness, and increasing circulation to help boost recovery time, along with giving an overall sensation of relaxation once you are done. Simply put, foam rollers are your own massage therapist, and the more you learn about to use them, the more benefits you can experience.

A general rule of thumb is that SOFTER IS BETTER. Using massage therapy tools such as foam rollers, for most people, does not mean trying to dig deep down into your tissues as hard as you possibly can. Listen to your body. Pain is your brain's way of saying something is wrong. So if you are going so far as to create a lot of pain, you should probably back off some. In addition, many foam rollers out there are rock hard. If you are unaccustomed to this type of work, this can bruise you and cause more pain. Even if you are accustomed to this type of work, using hard objects such as concrete blocks or lacrosse balls may harm you even if you can ignore the pain.

Yoga Tune Up balls are a much more refined tool, but function much the same way as foam rollers. They are pliable, grippy latex balls of pure awesome. They come in three different varieties: the originals, Plusses, and Alphas. In addition there is also the Coregeous Ball. The different sizes allow you to target different areas of your body with varying depths, which allows you you adjust depending on your pain level or what you are wanting to achieve.

#4. Compression Floss.

Compression Floss, specifically Voodoo Floss, is one of the most useful mobility tools out there. I specifically recommend using Voodoo Floss because it is grippy. Other types of floss may be smooth and can be difficult to wrap with because it slides down itself. Voodoo Floss does not have this problem. 

Compression Floss should feel uncomfortable. If you aren't feeling anything when you use it, you have either done an extreme amount of work and need medical attention, or you have it on so lightly that nothing is being done. Wrap with about a 75% stretch around the area you want to change, working upstream and downstream of the area. 

Floss accomplishes many things all at once. The compression will apply a deep tissue massage. The grippiness of the floss will pin down to your skin so that you work on improving sliding surfaces while you move the muscle underneath. It can drain swelling. It reduces your circulation for the duration of the wrap to help give a boost of fresh blood once it comes off. And if places around a joint, will create a joint distraction. 

The downside to using Voodoo Floss: it can be pretty uncomfortable. It should only be used for about 2 minutes at a time, with a 2 minute break between wraps. I typically recommend going for two minutes on, two minutes off for 10-20 minutes. 

And be sure to listen to your body. If you feel like you are going numb, or if you feel any other kind of sketchy sensation, please take the floss off and shake the body part out. 

#5. Contract-relax. 

Contract-relax means taking a limb to end-range, and then getting your brain engaged to stop it from restricting your ROM. Sometimes, expressing certain ranges of motion is kind of like walking through uncharted territory. It can be scary, and there can be an almost unreasonable fear of future injury. Your brain/nervous system can quite literally lock down on tissues to create more stability for the sake of stopping your from stretching out so far when that range of motion has not been expressed in a while. But if you can take the limb to end-range, tense the surrounding musculature to engage your nervous system, you can get things to relax and let you go farther. Basically, I look at it as being that you take the muscles to a range your brain will lock them down at, then by engaging the muscles, you are showing that you can perform work at that range with no risk. Just my interpretation of it,

Oftentimes, muscles aren’t too short or dehydrated...they are just being held back by fear. The video below shows me using a contract-relax sequence to help improve shoulder extension:

Mobility: What is it and what inhibits it?

Movement always comes first. Good movement will allow you to retain your mobility and is one of your greatest allies in the fight against chronic pain and performance dysfunction. You can do all the mobility work you want, but if your movement remains biomechanically unsound, the stiffness, pain, and bad posture will only return again. And oftentimes, it returns worse than before.

However, should you find yourself unable to move your arms and/or legs very far without moving your spine around, that is probably an indicator that you need to work on your mobility.

Having mobility means having the freedom to express independence of movement in order to accomplish work. Humans are built to move, and movement should never cause harm to your own body. But our bodies are also under constant stress, if only via gravity. Whenever you go for a walk, sit in a chair, or lift heavy weights, your body will adapt to the stress of the activity, and that adaptation will be as intense as the activity. And while many of these activities may make you stronger from a certain perspective, they will also make you stiffer and limit your range-of-motion (ROM).

Having tight tissues and less-than-optimal ROM means less power due to the shorter distance you can safely travel. And if you force that ROM, you risk tearing your tissues to bits. Imagine a competitive swimmer, or any sports player whose sport demands that they take their arm overhead repeatedly, and at high-intensity. Now imagine that athlete, in a rested and non-stressful environment, can only raise either arm to a 45 degree angle over their head. So half way between straight out in front of them, and straight over their head. And if they try to move it higher with a neutral spine, it creates pain in the shoulder. Now, this individual could bend their spine, lean back and make their arm appear to be straight up and down relative to the ground, but that relationship needs to be relative to their body and shoulder. Ordinarily, this individual will be told that he/she has tight shoulders and needs to stretch more. Coincidentally, this may be the same advice the individual has been given for several years, and they are still having the same issue. This is common. We have this idea that static stretching is all one can do to improve flexibility. And if this method does not work for a particular person, then that person just has genes that have pre-determined they will be a tight human being. All this sort of thinking does is demonstrate a lack of understanding about the things that actually create and inhibit human mobility. Using genetics as an answer is nothing but a convenient EXCUSE.

So when this competitive individual participates in sport, a few things happen: goal orientation and stress/stress hormones. This individual is focused on achieving their goals in competition in order to win, or help the team win. At the same time, the stress of the physical activity and of the competition itself stimulates the release of adrenaline, as well as other stress hormones. Adrenaline helps your body to increase certain attributes, such as strength and endurance, while blocking out the sensation of pain.

Tunnel-vision and short-term pain immunity. With these two things, it becomes easier for the athlete to explode through their already limited shoulder ROM without feeling anything. He/she has chosen to sacrifice a part of their body in order to achieve a goal. But what really happens to the shoulder, or any body part, when it is forced to repeatedly move farther than it normally can without stress. This depends on what is causing the lack of mobility. This is where most of the chronic pain and dysfunction of the athlete comes from. Why is a part of my body tight? And more importantly, what can I do to fix it so I do not have to worry about present chronic pain any longer, or about developing chronic pain later on? This is where we need to understand a few different factors that inhibit mobility. There are four major factors that we are going to focus on in this post. These four are relatively easy to understand, and once you are armed with this knowledge, you can proceed to work on your mobility in a significantly more effective way than just hanging out at end-range with no real intention or results.

One of the rules of mobility is to prove that what you are doing is actually working towards your goal. You need to be able to see with your naked eye (NOT with a laser goniometer or other device used to measure joint angle) that your body can move farther than it previously could without sacrificing good body mechanics.

#1. Neural tension.

The spine comes first. Always. It is a hard and fast rule to prioritize and optimize spinal position before, during, and after all movements (http://www.ehmobility.com/blog/getting-started-with-your-own-self-maintenance-plan-part-2-start-loving-your-spine). Will you always be able to perform with a perfectly neutral spine? No. But you need to learn to, and be able to, brace your spine into the best position possible for your activity, whether that is picking up a pillow or a 400lb weight. Basically, you need to understand that trying to move around with a disorganized spine is something that your brain does not like. Especially if you are under a load, but even if it is only your body weight, your brain will stiffen up your tissues around your spine to help stabilize it and prevent disk herniation. The first thing to do to maximize your mobility is to go through the bracing sequence: Squeeze your butt, squeeze your belly. Then, with your belly still squeezed, unclench your butt. That is it. That sequence establishes a braced and neutral spine, which will release a lot of neural tension that may have been present.

#2. Joint Mobility.

Joint mobility refers to two things: Joint capsule mobility, and joint position. Your joint capsule is a fibrous membrane that surrounds your synovial joints (Joints that are not directly joined and have a cavity filled with synovial fluid. This includes your ankles, knees, hips, wrists, elbows, shoulders and others). When this fibrous sac surrounding the joint is not moved either frequently, or through full ROM, it stiffens up just like most of your other tissues. Stiffness in the joint capsule, which limits how far your bones can move around, contributes a massive amount to total mobility.

In addition, if surrounding tissues are tight, a joint can be pulled tight in a particular direction. This can mean that the two joint surfaces have been pulled together to squeeze out synovial fluid, and the surfaces will grind together against the socket or adjacent bone. Which hurts. A lot.

#3. Sliding Surfaces.

Sliding surfaces in my experience is a factor that is extremely easy to fix for most, is quite easy to understand, and also can have a tremendous impact on your ability to move. The concept of sliding surfaces means that your skin, muscles, nerves, blood vessels, lymph vessels, and bones should all be only loosely attached to each other. Their should be some loose fascia holding everything together, but these structures should all be able to slide and glide around each other smoothly. But if connective tissue builds up and adheres these structures together, it can become more like Velcro, with large amounts of friction, and irritation. Nerve endings can become inflammed, blood vessels can be placed under excess pressure resulting in varicose veins, and lymph vessels can become swollen. This can occur in basically any part of the body which does not move often enough.

#4. Muscle Dynamics

Sometimes a muscle simply has adapted to a shortened position and does indeed need to get stretched out. Alternatively, the brain/nervous system can literally lock down on certain tissues and prevent them from extending passed a certain length. An idea about why this happens is that the brain has been led to believe (probably due to lack of movement) that it will be dangerous to move beyond a certain range. It has become scary, unexplored territory. This is where PNF (proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation) stretching, or contract-relax as we will call it, comes into play. This is when you take a body part to its current end-range, tense the muscles around the area to stimulate the nervous system for a few seconds, inhale, exhale, relax everything and allow the body part to move farther. If the nervous system really was inhibiting the movement, tensing your tissues at end-range will essentially be telling the brain that it is alright to do work at that range- nothing is going to be injured- and that it can relax.

Why should you have a mobile body? A body that can move through full ranges of motion effortlessly? Because it allows you to have strength. To have speed. To have endurance. It can help you to prevent just about any type of chronic pain humans can develop (http://www.ehmobility.com/blog/getting-started-with-your-own-self-maintenance-practice-part-1). Having mobility means you can get to the ground and stand back up. By yourself. Increased athleticism, pain management, and independence of movement. That is why you should want a mobile body.

In my next blog, we will begin exploring the different tools I use to clean up poor mobility and enhance human performance. As well as show some easy methods of using each one to help your body right away.

The Third Rule of Movement: The One-Joint Rule

First off, let us recap the first two rules of movement:

Rule #1: Prioritize your spine.

This almost always takes the form of the bracing sequence. However, even for shapes and movements that demand global flexion or extension in the spine, the position still needs to be braced. If you cannot squeeze your butt and belly, you have gone into local flexion or extension. You have kinked the hose. This means that you can no longer stabilize your position on your own. If you cannot consciously squeeze it, you cannot use it.

Rule #2: Torque

Create rotation in your shoulders and hips. External rotation if your limbs are in flexion (in front of your body) and internal rotation if your limbs are in extension (behind your body). Creating torque gets your skeleton in a better position, and winds up your muscles to stabilize your skeleton in that better position, primarily in your shoulders and hips. This extra stability allows you to much more easily maintain a good position while are in motion.

These two rules can be done by themselves in a static position, which is where they can be taught first. But you have to learn to display these rules while moving, and especially while under stress. This is where the third rule comes into play.

ule #3: The one-joint rule

The one-joint rule states that the spine does not move while changing from one body shape to another. The rule of maintaining a neutral spine not only applies for static positions, but also, and more importantly, it apples for dynamic positions and movements while you are under stress (including exercising). This is the one-joint rule. When you are moving, your spine should be treated as one solid lever. There are no joints in your spine any longer once you have braced yourself.

After getting braced, I place one thumb on my sternum, and the other at my waist. 

And even as I bend over to get ready to pick something up or to squat, the distance between my hands remains constant. My spine keeps its shape throughout the entire movement.

Understanding how to do this is more important than I can stress in text. Because it is movement of the spine under stress that creates most of the back pain people experience, developing some strength and proprioception (the ability to sense where and how your body is arranged in space) can save you from massive amounts of dread and unneeded medical payments.

The only places in your body where you should see large amounts of movements are in your shoulders and hips, and the joints outside of them. This also means that your shoulders and hips need to be able to move through their full range of motion (ROM) without pulling on and altering your spine.

Start with bracing yourself. Now with that braced position active, you need to be conscious of maintaining that position while you squat, lunge, deadlift, reach overhead, reach behind you, and while you carry weight, etc.. This takes practice. Unless you have been trained to move like this your whole life, it is going to be a new skill for you to learn. But as with any other skills and practices, once you train it consistently for a few weeks, it becomes automatic. Utilizing the one-joint rule, both in the gym and in your day-to-day life, will be a habit that will reward you for the rest of your life. Imagine never having to worry about dealing with low-back pain. Imagine never having to worry about developing sciatica or a shoulder impingement. Embody these concepts of taking care of your body, and they alone will drastically reduce your chances of many common ailments that plague so many people. And be sure to check out the video below for more visual cues about how to utilize the one-joint rule, as well as the previous two rules!

Deadlifting. It's not a lower back exercise. It's not specifically a gym exercise. It is a basic movement you use all the time to either pick something up or put something down. When people can't or won't perform this movement and position well, this is a huge factor for why 80% of all Americans develop low back pain.

Getting started with your own self-maintenance plan. Part 3. Protecting your joints

Bracing your spine is the first part of creating optimal position, and the bracing sequence alone can be a life-saver. However, it really only affects your trunk; the bracing sequence does nothing to help create stability in your limbs. So along with the bracing sequence, we also need a way of bracing our joints. And this is done by creating torque in our shoulders and hips.

Torque is defined as a twisting force that tends to cause rotation. If you hold one arm up in front of your body, and rotate it to turn your palm up and to the right, the tension you will feel in your shoulder is torque, or torsion. And as it turns out, your wrists, elbows, shoulders, hips, kness, and ankles not only flex and extend, but also all rotate as well. This means they all have capacity for generating torque for stability.

In my own experiences, torque is the most difficult concept for people to understand, and therefore to implement. But if you can specifically practice creating torque as a skill during your movements, whether in daily life or in the gym, you can quickly and easily have massive improvements in your strength, speed, range of motion, and safety. In fact, if you do not create torque in your joints, or you create rotation in the wrong direction, you will actually set yourself up to not only be weaker and less flexible, but will be setting yourself up for injury, in such ways as an ACL tear, a labrum tear and rotator cuff tear, among others. But learning how to create torque in the right direction is relatively simple, and follows a basic pattern.

Flexion= external rotation
Extension= internal rotation.

If your arm or leg is in flexion, meaning in front of your body, you create external rotation to create stability, and internal rotation to create instability.
If your arm or leg is in extension, meaning behind your body, you create internal rotation to create stability, and external rotation to create instability.

As you can see in this picture, the two ligaments anchoring the two sides of the knee together in the center of it have an X shape to them. When you create external rotation in a knee, the ligaments stay tight, keeping the knee stable. However, if you internally rotate the knee, these two ligaments will unwind, adding significantly more stress to the knee.

As you can see in this picture, the two ligaments anchoring the two sides of the knee together in the center of it have an X shape to them. When you create external rotation in a knee, the ligaments stay tight, keeping the knee stable. However, if you internally rotate the knee, these two ligaments will unwind, adding significantly more stress to the knee.

These patterns are actually seen in your daily life, and have been present your entire life. How do your turn a door knob, or key for your cars ignition, or use a screwdriver to tighten a screw? You always turn your arm to the outside, creating external rotation. If you are in the front seat of a car and you want to reach behind yourself to grab something in the backseat, do turn your palm up or down to have the most flexibility? Down, which creates internal rotation in the shoulder. You can't get very far if you keep your palm up. What about a boxer, when he throws a punch from his back hip? His back leg turns inward, again, creating internal rotation, because you cannot punch very well if your back leg is turning outward.

Hopefully with these examples you can have a clear image in your head of what I mean when I refer to creating torque, or rotation, within your shoulders and hips. When you create this torque in the right direction, you are actually creating stability by tightening up the joints and engaging all the muscles surrounding the joint. This creates strength while also preserving flexibility. At the same time, it prevents the two sides of a joint from moving independently of each other, placing massive amounts of stress on your
cartilage and ligaments. Hence why ligament tears are so common when people move in certain positions.

A major point to make on the subject of torque is that you only harm the joints if they are rotated in the wrong direction under two conditions:
1. You hold that position long enough to adapt to it, and to also make a habit which will be expressed under stress, or
2. You express this position under a load.

Actually, creating internal rotation while in flexion, and vice versa, is useful for mobilizing the joint capsule and getting fluid into the joint to help improve your overall mobility. But that is a position that you only momentarily pass through, never one that you remain in for any significant amount of time.

This does not mean you have to constantly be creating tension in your hips and shoulders all the time. That would be a ridiculous demand, and would likely end up being detrimental to your health. However, you can display small amounts of torque habitually to maintain good posture in daily life. This can take the form of keeping your feet straight while you walk, turning your knees to the outside when you sit, stand and when going up and down stairs or ladders. It is also displayed as keeping your shoulders back rather than hunched forward. These same positions should also be displayed in the gym.

One major hindrance to creating torque is this: People are rarely taught to intentionally create rotation to their maximum anatomical range of motion, and so the muscles that create rotation, such as the rotator cuff muscles, and the external rotators of the hips, are quite often super stiff and painful to press into. And so mobilizing these tissues, which will come up in later blogs, is important to start with. Because you can understand movement principles to the best of your ability, but if you do not have the mobility to actually express the principles, you will never move optimally. However, movement always comes first, and many mobility problems can be remedied by simply beginning to move correctly. So here is a tip for you to begin incorporating into your daily life as a way of cultivating torque in your body as a habit: every time you step up and over something, or are walking up and down stairs, pay attention to how your back leg moves. Oftentimes, because the hip external rotators are so stiff, the leg will become externally rotated while it is in extension, which we know creates instability. So if you find that your leg is flying out to the side, rather than moving straight under your hips as it comes forward, pay attention to that, and make a conscious effort to keep your leg in. Try to bring that back knee straight up into flexion, not rounding out.

One other point to make about torque is that the way we do express joint rotation, as in the example above about walking up and down a staircase, is often what we have done habitually for years and was never aware of it. For example, there have been several studies, such as the one found here: http://ajs.sagepub.com/content/23/6/694.short, that claim women have many more ACL injuries than men, especially in sports, some claiming anywhere between 4-10 times the amount of tears. Why could this be? How are women taught to arrange their knees from the time they start walking and wearing skirts and dresses? Knees together. Often we will see this expressed with the feet slightly apart, and the knees collapse to each other, or the knees will be crossed over each other. These women are being taught to create internal rotation from a very young age, and it quickly becomes a habit. This is a huge factor for why almost every single untrained female I have ever seen play sports or exercise will jump and land with their feet wide and their knees coming together. Accumulate a few thousand reps of creating slack in the knee and stressing ACL. Remember, external rotation in flexion creates muscular stability. Creating internal rotation while in flexion reduces muscular engagement, and places the stress on the ligaments.

And a final note about torque is that you are primarily aiming to create torque in the shoulders and hips. If your legs are in flexion, you are creating torque in your hips, knees and ankles. But because of how the anatomy in the knees and ankles is arranged, you will never create internal rotation in those structures if your leg is in extension; only creating torque in the hip. Going back to the example of the boxer, or just talking about a simple lunge, the heel of the back foot should come up so that you can pivot on the ball of the foot. You should never create internal rotation in the foot (creating a collapsed arch) or in the knee (wrecking havoc on the ACL and meniscus.

Getting started with your own self-maintenance plan. Part 2. Start loving your spine.

In my previous blog, I briefly outlined the 4 categories of pain and injuries as laid out in the Starrett Movement and Mobility system: pathology, catastrophe, motor-control/stability, and mobility. If your problem is pathological or catastrophical, you need to see your physician for help. That will often-times be your best option. However, if your pain is related to either your motor-control in your day-to-day movements, or to your mobility, you can take control over that yourself. Understanding the distinction between these categories is important. Too many times, people will experience sore and achy knees or shoulders, for example, and if it does not go away on it’s own, they will see a medical doctor to help. But here is the thing: medical doctors are trained for pathological and catastrophical problems. They are NOT usually trained to help correct your posture while working out, or to help make your body be more mobile. Ice and pain meds do nothing but provide short-term relief, and can end up making things worse in the long run. So what can you do to fix bad posture and relieve your own chronic pain? Start with your spine.
We always start with solid movement patterns first for a very specific reason: You can do all the mobility work you want to, and have all the awesome and fancy tools on the market, but without actually moving in functional, full range-of-motion movements that match your physiology, you will lose that mobility in a heartbeat. Movement first. Learn how to move correctly, and you will begin to develop your own, real-time, blueprint for diagnosing and preventing chronic pain and dysfunction, and will have a much better idea about how to fix your own lack of mobility if that is an issue for you. All good movements always start by prioritizing the spine.

Photo courtesy of : By . – http://training.seer.cancer.gov/module_anatomy/unit3_5_skeleton_divisions.html, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=1394201

Photo courtesy of : By . – http://training.seer.cancer.gov/module_anatomy/unit3_5_skeleton_divisions.html, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=1394201

Your spine has 3 natural curves that can move around. These are present in your neck (cervical spine, which has an inward curve), ribcage (thoracic spine, which has an outward curve) and in the lower back (lumbar spine, which has an inward curve.) Preservation of these curves is normally what we are seeking in both your daily movements (getting out of a chair, standing in the shower, walking to work, etc.) and in movements at the gym. There are three major reasons why you want to prioritize your spine first:

  1. Roop Sihota, who taught my Movement and Mobility seminar, stated the first reason about as good as anyone can: Because central nervous system (CNS) injury SUCKS!!! So here’s the thing: Your spine is your brains tail. It is how your brain communicates with your body and gets you moving so you can survive in your environment. This makes your spine incredibly valuable, at least according to your brain. So when you injure, or even threaten to injure your spine, this is not something your brain takes lightly. If you have ever hurt your spine before, you know that it is not only physically painful, but also mentally and emotionally draining. You become self-conscious about every little movement, and your personality can become depressing because even mild spinal pains are so debilitating.
  2. The second reason is that having your spine in a bad position drastically lowers your potential for strength. If you create a hinge in a couple of spinal segments, you are basically putting a kink in the tube. Place a weight on that hinge, and you are at risk for disk herniation. When this happens, your brain will redirect your energy away from your extremities and towards your spine to brace your muscles and connective tissues immediately around your spine in order to help prevent the spine from moving poorly while under a load. [IF YOU HAVE LOW BACK PAIN, PROCEED WITH CAUTION] An easy way to understand this is to lay down on the ground on your back, completely relax your whole body, and suddenly jerk your feet up 6 inches. You’ll notice your belly will bulge upward and the position will be uncomfortable, taking a lot of work to maintain. Now completely relax your body again. This time I want you to squeeze your butt, squeeze your belly, and now lift your feet 6 inches. A little bit easier? Good. Now, with your feet still up in the air, relax your butt. You’ll notice that your belly will bulge back up, and your feet will drop on their own, suddenly feeling a lot heavier. What happened here is that the muscles attaching your hips to your spine (your psoas) were no longer stable when you relaxed your butt and they yanked on your spine. By doing this drill, your just jerked on your own CNS, and all the energy you were expending to simply hold your feet up was redirected inward to brace that musculature around your spine rather than just hold your hips and legs in place.
  3. The third reason for prioritizing your spine is that being disorganized drastically limits your flexibility. This happens for exactly the same reason as why your strength diminishes under the same circumstances. Your muscles tighten around your spine and cannot fully relax outward.[IF YOU HAVE LOW BACK PAIN, PROCEED WITH CAUTION] A simple way to exemplify how your nervous system can create tight muscles is to inflict some neural tension on yourself: Sit down in a chair and lift one leg so it is outstretched in front of you, parallel to the ground. Round your torso forward to give yourself as much of a hunchback as you can, and nod your head up and down. You’ll probably notice that when you tuck your chin to chest, your hamstrings start to get tighter. Well all that’s happening there is that your spine is becoming so disorganized that your nervous system has to create stability and stiffness on it’s own. This is also referred to as disrespecting your spine. And you can feel how these tissues, extending all the way down to your hips, get tight to create stability.

Your body will fight for stability, and it does not think about long-term health when doing so. You can create your own stability yourself with good movement mechanics, or your body will create it’s own stability, which we are seeing frequently results in chronic pain.
Prioritize your spine. Spinal position always comes first. It prevents injury, and it maximizes your potential for both strength and flexibility. So there is the why. Now the how. How do you get your spine into a neutral position and keep it there? You start off with what we call the Bracing Sequence. If you have kept up with the blog post thus far, you’ve already done it once.
Step #1: Squeeze your butt.
Step #2: Squeeze your belly.
Step #3: While keeping your belly tight, relax your butt.
You are now braced and ready for action. Turn this sequence into a habit before you sit down, stand up, bend over to pick something up, reach your arms overhead or do anything that involves moving weights around, and you will single-handedly prevent just about any kind of preventable (i.e. non-catastrophical and non-pathological) back pain and dysfunction.
This Bracing Sequence works in a couple of ways. First, it shifts your hips so that your lumbar vertebrae are in a neutral position. When you squeeze your butt, your hips will actually rotate posteriorly. This is why you have a butt. If you’ve never noticed before, humans are the only creatures on Earth that have a butt as we tend to think of it. All other mammals have a flat, callused booty that they can sit on. We have big butts because we stand upright.
Second part is to squeeze your belly. This is the actual bracing part. Your hips set the position, and your abs brace it so you can maintain that neutral spinal position. Squeezing your belly also pulls your ribcage down to help put your thoracic vertebrae into a neutral position. When your belly is braced, you can relax your butt so your legs can move a bit more easily. As long as your belly remains braced, your hips and ribcage will remain aligned. From here, look straight ahead to set your cervical spine in a good position, and keep your shoulders centered on top of your ribcage to help keep your thorax in check.
This Bracing Sequence is a lifesaver when it comes to both athleticism and general well-being. If you can get yourself to always think about your spinal position and start doing the Bracing Sequence all the time, the future pay-off will be huge. It doesn’t matter if you are reaching down to pick the newspaper up, or about to set a record for your deadlift. The setup is the same. And the best part is that you really only need to consciously focus on it all the time for a few weeks. After enough time has passed, it will be a habit and you will automatically begin bracing yourself in a good position without having to intentionally focus so much on it. Do this work now, and the long-term payout is massive.
The exception to the rule– Global flexion and extension
There is always an exception to any rule depending upon the circumstances. Try to reach around a refrigerator or boulder and pick them up with a perfectly straight spine. That just won’t happen unless your arms are strong enough to do the lifting by themselves. So for large and cumbersome objects, you need to create what we call GLOBAL flexion, where the whole spine is rounded as a whole (not creating a hinge between just a couple of vertebrae). Conversely, you may also need to create GLOBAL extension, as with handstands. Again, we are avoiding two things: LOCAL flexion and extension, where you are creating a kink in a small segment of your spine, and we are also avoiding creating movement in the spine while under a load. Yes, it is less than ideal, but our goal is optimal performance.

Getting Started with your own Self-Maintenance Practice. Part 1

“All humans have the right and responsibility to perform maintenance on their own body.” -Dr. Kelly Starrett.
So here is how most people handle their own self-maintenance. You wake up one day and have some sort of pain. Your knee is swollen, you have a rash, your arm keeps going numb. And what do you do? First order of business: rest and hope everything goes away on its own. If that doesn’t work, you ice it or take medication. And if THAT doesn’t work, you go to a doctor who will then first prescribe rest and ice/medication. After that comes surgery, and then more chronic pain, scar tissue, and problems.
An important topic to understand when it comes to pain management is the categories of pain and injury. Once you understand these categories, you can begin to self-diagnose whether or not the problem you are having should be addressed via the movement and mobility tools coming in later blogs, or via a physician. These categories are:

  1. Pathology- This refers to diseases. People get sick; it’s a part of life. Different diseases can rear their ugly head in different ways. Symptoms include, but are not limited to: fever, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, night sweats, changes in bowel/bladder function and diarrhoea. If you are experiencing any of these with any regularity, you should probably see your physician.
  2. Catastrophe- Shit happens. Sometimes an external force that is out of your control comes at you and severely injures your body. You are playing soccer and someone lands on the side of your knee and the whole joint shatters. You’re walking up a staircase, trip, land with your hands, and your wrists break. It happens. If you break a bone, rip a muscle in two, or have profuse bleeding, please go see your doctor.
  3. Motor-Control- This means your posture in any given activity. Whether you are just standing, or running, or squatting double your bodyweight, if you move poorly and have bad posture, then your body will break down at an accelerated rate and you will likely eventually have some serious issues down the road.
  4. Mobility- Sometimes parts of your body are under too much tension. This restricts your ability to move even if you have impeccable motor-control in your movements. But flexibility is much, much more than just how short or long any given muscle is. Rather, it has much more to do with your hydration, body temperature, joint capsule mobility, sliding surfaces and even tension in your nervous system and brain. Any, and all, of these factors can contribute to lack of range of motion, and this lack of mobility accelerates damage in joints, decreases overall energy levels, and significantly increases your chances for injury.
A decent squat position. Note the feet are parallel, and the knees are being shoved out.

A decent squat position. Note the feet are parallel, and the knees are being shoved out.

A much-less-than-optimal squat position. This collapsed knee position is an example of using body position as a leading indicator. We know this position unwinds your ACL and PCL and creates slack in the knee. This slack allows the tibia and femur to move more independently of each other, and drastically increases the possibility of an ACL tear.

A much-less-than-optimal squat position. This collapsed knee position is an example of using body position as a leading indicator. We know this position unwinds your ACL and PCL and creates slack in the knee. This slack allows the tibia and femur to move more independently of each other, and drastically increases the possibility of an ACL tear.

Diseases and catastrophes happen. They are just a part of life and cannot be controlled as well as we would like. Fortunately however, according to Dr. Kelly Starrett, pathology and catastrophe only make up 2% of your everyday problems. Your posture and your mobility together make up the other 98%, and are 100% in your control if you are willing to start paying attention to your own movements. What this means, is that if you can understand what a good position is, and how to fix a lack of good position, then you can prevent the vast majority of physical problems you will ever likely have.
This is why I do not want to use pain as a diagnostic tool. Pain is a lagging indicator; you don’t actually feel pain until AFTER you have experienced some damage. In fact, you may never feel any pain in your knee until after you tear your meniscus from squatting so poorly. And that is a difficult injury to come back from. Another point about pain is that you never really feel pain when you are adrenalized. If you are playing a sports game, working out, or on a military mission and are under a massive amount of stress, then you may not feel any pain from impacts or punctures until after your stress hormones settle down a bit. So we do not want to use pain as a diagnostic tool. Instead, I want to use a LEADING indicator; something that tells me trouble is coming if things persist as they are. This leading indicator is position.
Creaky knees, stiff shoulders and a tight upper back, collapsed arches and an achy lower back. 98% of the time, these are problems that are fixed through fixing your ability to get into good postures. Ask yourself these questions the next time you are feeling chronic pain:
-Did you suddenly wake up and things were awry, or was there some clear cut incident that caused the pain?
-Are you sore because you performed a hard workout or a different set of movements than you are used to in general, or could you have been exposed to an illness?
Hopefully this will get you to think about why you might be feeling what you are feeling, and if a doctor visit is really necessary. In the next two blogs, we will cover how to fix motor-control problems, and how to fix mobility problems, and also how to prevent problems from all together happening. Low back pain is a 10-15 billion dollar a year problem in America. The vast majority of cases are completely preventable. If you understand how to fix and get into good body shapes, then you can do just that- prevent back pain, and most other joint and muscles injuries.